1. Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology Guidelines. J Psychopharmacol. 2015;29(5):459-525.
  2. Taylor DM, Barnes TR, Young AH. The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons; 2021.
  3. Maund, Emma, MSc,M.Phil, PhD., Stuart, Beth,M.Sc, PhD., Moore, Michael, BM BS,M.R.C.P., F.R.C.G.P., et al. Managing antidepressant discontinuation: A systematic review. Annals of family medicine. 2019;17(1):52-60.
  4. Van Leeuwen E, Driel ML, et al. Approaches for discontinuation versus continuation of long‐term antidepressant use for depressive and anxiety disorders in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021;2021(4):CD013495-CD013495.
  5. Lewis G, Marston L, Duffy L, et al. Maintenance or discontinuation of antidepressants in primary care. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(14):1257-1267.
  6. Henssler J, Heinz A, Brandt L, Bschor T. Antidepressant withdrawal and rebound phenomena. Deutsches Ärzteblatt international. 2019;116(20):355-361.
  7. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 2011. Generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder in adults: Management: NICE Guideline CG113. Updated 2019. Accessed 1 April 2021.
  8. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 2018. Post-traumatic stress disorder: NICE guideline NG116. Updated 26 November 2021. Accessed 1 April 2022.
  9. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 2019. Depression in adults: Recognition and management: NICE Clinical guideline CG90. Accessed 1 April 2022.
  10. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 2015. Bipolar disorder in adults: Quality standard QS95. Accessed 1 April 2022.
  11. Malpass A, Kessler D, Sharp D, Shaw A. 'I didn't want her to panic': Unvoiced patient agendas in primary care consultations when consulting about antidepressants. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61(583):e63-e71.
  12. Houston K, Haw C, Townsend E, Hawton K. General practitioner contacts with patients before and after deliberate self harm. Br J Gen Pract. 2003;53(490):365-370.
  13. Stone M, Laughren T, Jones ML, et al. Risk of suicidality in clinical trials of antidepressants in adults: Analysis of proprietary data submitted to US food and drug administration. BMJ. 2009;339(7718):1271; 385; 396; 165; 595; 1; 332; 311; 1456; 389; 203; 1035; 721; 941; 325; 865; 813-434.
  14. Dougall N, Stark C, Agnew T, Henderson R, Maxwell M, Lambert P. An analysis of suicide trends in scotland 1950-2014: Comparison with England & Wales. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):970-970.
  15. Furukawa TA, Cipriani A, Cowen PJ, Leucht S, Egger M, Salanti G. Optimal dose of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine in major depression: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry; 2019;6(7):601-609.
  16. Furukawa TA, Salanti G, Cowen PJ, Leucht S, Cipriani A. No benefit from flexible titration above minimum licensed dose in prescribing antidepressants for major depression: Systematic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2020;141(5):401-409.
  17. Holper L. Optimal doses of antidepressants in dependence on age: Combined covariate actions in bayesian network meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine; EClinicalMedicine. 2020;18:100219-100219.
  18. Finnerup NB, M.D., Attal N, Prof, Haroutounian S, PhD., et al. Pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet neurology. 2015;14(2):162-173.
  19. Johnson CF, Williams B, MacGillivray SA, Dougall NJ, Maxwell M. 'Doing the right thing': Factors influencing GP prescribing of antidepressants and prescribed doses. BMC Fam Pract. 2017;18(1):72-72.
  20. Saragoussi D, Chollet J, Bineau S, Chalem Y, Milea D. Antidepressant switching patterns in the treatment of major depressive disorder: A general practice research database (GPRD) study: Antidepressant switching patterns in the treatment of major depressive disorder. International journal of clinical practice (Esher). 2012;66(11):1079-1087.
  21. Spijker J, De Graaf R, Bijl RV, Beekman ATF, Ormel J, Nolen WA. Duration of major depressive episodes in the general population: Results from the netherlands mental health survey and incidence study (NEMESIS). Br J Psychiatry. 2002;181(3):208-213.
  22. Baldwin DS, Anderson IM, Nutt DJ, et al. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2014;28(5):403-439.
  23. Moore M, Yuen HM, Dunn N, Mullee MA, Maskell J, Kendrick T. Explaining the rise in antidepressant prescribing: A descriptive study using the general practice research database. BMJ. 2009;339:b4361-b4361.
  24. Kendrick T, Stuart B, Newell C, Geraghty AWA, Moore M. Did NICE guidelines and the quality outcomes framework change GP antidepressant prescribing in England? observational study with time trend analyses 2003–2013. J Affect Disord. 2015;186:171-177.
  25. Middleton D.J., Cameron I.M., Reid IC. Continuity and monitoring of antidepressant therapy in a primary care setting. Quality in primary care. 2011;19(2):109-113.
  26. Johnson CF, Macdonald HJ, Atkinson P, Buchanan AI, Downes N, Dougall N. Reviewing long-term antidepressants can reduce drug burden: A prospective observational cohort study. Br J Gen Pract. 2012;62(604):e773-e779.
  27. Adli M, Baethge C, Heinz A, Langlitz N, Bauer M. Is dose escalation of antidepressants a rational strategy after a medium–dose treatment has failed?: A systematic review. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;255(6):387-400.
  28. Girardi P, Pompili M, Innamorati M, et al. Duloxetine in acute major depression: Review of comparisons to placebo and standard antidepressants using dissimilar methods. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. 2009;24(3):177-190.
  29. Dold M, Bartova L, Rupprecht R, Kasper S. Dose escalation of antidepressants in unipolar depression: A meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized controlled trials. Psychother Psychosom. 2017;86(5):283-291.
  30. Ruhe HG, Huyser J, Swinkels JA, Schene AH. Dose escalation for insufficient response to standard-dose selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in major depressive disorder: Systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;189(4):309-316.
  31. Berney P. Dose-response relationship of recent antidepressants in the short-term treatment of depression. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience. 2005;7(3):249-262.
  32. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neuropathic pain in adults: Pharmacological management in non-specialist settings: Nice Guideline CG173. Updated 2020. Accessed 1 April, 2022.
  33. Kallergis EM, Goudis CA, Simantirakis EN, Kochiadakis GE, Vardas PE. Mechanisms, risk factors, and management of acquired long QT syndrome: A comprehensive review. Scientific World Journal. 2012:212178-8.
  34. Smith D, Dempster C, Glanville J, Freemantle N, Anderson I. Efficacy and tolerability of venlafaxine compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressants: A meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180(5):396-404.
  35. Bymaster F.P., Lee T.C., Knadler M.P., Detke M.J., Iyengar S. The dual transporter inhibitor duloxetine: A review of its preclinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetic profile, and clinical results in depression. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(12):1475-1493.
  36. Bazire S. Psychotropic drug directory 2018 : The professionals' pocket handbook and aide memoire. Lloyd-Reinhold Publications; 2018.
  37. Seppala L.J., Wermelink A.M.A.T., de Vries M., et al. Fall-risk-increasing drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis: II. psychotropics. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2018;19(4):371.e11-371.e17.
  38. Jiang H, Chen H, Hu X, et al. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2015;13(1):42-50.e3.
  39. Zhang Y, Souverein PC, Gardarsdottir H, van den Ham H,A., Maitland-van der Zee A, de Boer A. Risk of major bleeding among users of direct oral anticoagulants combined with interacting drugs: A population-based nested case–control study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020;86(6):1150-1164.
  40. Baxter K, Preston CL. Stockley's drug interactions. Pharmaceutical Press. Accessed 1 April 2022.
  41. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Citalopram and escitalopram: QT interval prolongation: New maximum daily dose restrictions (including in elderly patients), contraindications, and warnings. UK Government. 2011.  Accessed on 5 April 2022.
  42. Barnett K, PhD., Mercer SW, Prof, Norbury M, M.B.ChB., Watt G, Prof, Wyke S, Prof, Guthrie B, Prof. Epidemiology of multimorbidity and implications for health care, research, and medical education: A cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2012;380(9836):37-43.
  43. Bains J, Birks J, Dening T. Antidepressants for treating depression in dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002(4):CD003944-CD003944.
  44. Nelson JC, Devanand DP. A systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled antidepressant studies in people with depression and dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(4):577-585.
  45. Banerjee S, Prof, Hellier J, M.Sc, Dewey M, PhD., et al. Sertraline or mirtazapine for depression in dementia (HTA-SADD): A randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;378(9789):403-411.
  46. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK). Depression: The treatment and management of depression in adults (updated edition). British Psychological Society. 2010. Accessed 5 April 2022.
  47. Sultzer DL, Gray KF, Gunay I, Wheatley MV, Mahler ME. Does behavioral improvement with haloperidol or trazodone treatment depend on psychosis or mood symptoms in patients with dementia? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(10):1294-1300.
  48. Seitz DP, Adunuri N, Gill SS, et al. Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;2011(2):CD008191-CD008191.
  49. Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary (online). BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press; 2020. Accessed 30 March 2022.
  50. Dell’osso B, Lader M. Do benzodiazepines still deserve a major role in the treatment of psychiatric disorders? A critical reappraisal. Eur Psychiatry. 2011;28(1):7-20.
  51. Ashton H. Toxicity and adverse consequences of benzodiazepine use. Psychiatric Annals. 1995;25(3):158-165.
  52. Kripke DF. Greater incidence of depression with hypnotic use than with placebo. BMC Psychiatry. 2007;7(1):42-42.
  53. Otto MW, Bruce SE, Deckersbach T. Benzodiazepine use, cognitive impairment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: Issues in the treatment of a patient in need. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66 Suppl 2:34.
  54. Mitchell AJ, Delaffon V, Vancampfort D, Correll CU, De Hert M. Guideline concordant monitoring of metabolic risk in people treated with antipsychotic medication: Systematic review and meta-analysis of screening practices. Psychol Med. 2012;42(1):125-147.
  55. Kirkham E, Skinner J, Anderson T, Bazire S, Twigg MJ, Desborough JA. One lithium level >1.0 mmol/L causes an acute decline in eGFR: Findings from a retrospective analysis of a monitoring database. BMJ Open. 2014;4(11):e006020.
  56. Kessler DS, MacNeill SJ, Tallon D, et al. Mirtazapine added to SSRIs or SNRIs for treatment resistant depression in primary care: Phase III randomised placebo controlled trial (MIR). BMJ. 2018;363:k4218-k4218.
  57. Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Stewart JW, et al. Combining medications to enhance depression outcomes (CO-MED): Acute and long-term outcomes of a single-blind randomized study. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168(7):689-701.
  58. Mendelson WB. A review of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of trazodone in insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66(4):469-476.
  59. Nutt DJ. Tolerability and safety aspects of mirtazapine. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. 2002;17:S37-S41.
  60. Castro VM, Clements CC, Murphy SN, et al. QT interval and antidepressant use: A cross sectional study of electronic health records. BMJ. 2013;346:16; 29; 1131; 150; 174; 373; 1070; 692; 121; 133; 320; 299; e000544; 124; 1774; 1675; 477; 1245; 1013; 107; 701; 526; 903; 1649-f288.
  61. Donoghue J, Tylee A, Wildgust H. Cross sectional database analysis of antidepressant prescribing in general practice in the United Kingdom, 1993–5. BMJ. 1996;313(7061):861-862.
  62. Donoghue J. Sub-optimal use of tricyclic antidepressants in primary care. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998;98(6):429-431.
  63. Gelenberg AJ, Freeman MP, Markowitz JC, et al. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. 3rd ed. American Psychiatric Association; 2010. Accessed 5 April 2020.
  64. Kennedy S.H., Lam R.W., McIntyre R.S., et al. Canadian network for mood and anxiety treatments (CANMAT) 2016 clinical guidelines for the management of adults with major depressive disorder: Section 3. pharmacological treatments. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2016;61(9):540-560.
  65. Rix S, Paykel ES, Lelliott P, et al. Impact of a national campaign on GP education: An evaluation of the defeat depression campaign. Br J Gen Pract. 1999;49(439):99-102.
  66. Malhi GS, Bassett D, Boyce P, et al. Royal australian and new zealand college of psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2015;49(12):1087-1206.
  67. Dowrick C, Frances A. Medicalising unhappiness: New classification of depression risks more patients being put on drug treatment from which they will not benefit. BMJ. 2013;347:1080; 44; 88; 47; 1042; 393; 252; 1855; 572; 1434; 632; 159; b3999; 577; 511; 413; 458; 1375; 338; 317; 979; 11; f540; e45; 161; 3095; 1; 464; A5101; 3106; 201; 125; 1840; 149; CD004851; 61; 609; 1449-f7140.
  68. Busfield J. ‘A pill for every ill’: Explaining the expansion in medicine use. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70(6):934-941.
  69. Dohnhammar U, Reeve J, Walley T. Patients' expectations of medicines – a review and qualitative synthesis. Health Expect. 2016;19(2):179-193.
  70. Godman B, Kurdi A, McCabe H, et al. Ongoing initiatives within the scottish national health service to affect the prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and their influence. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research. 2019;8(7):535-547.
  71. Leydon GM, Rodgers L, Kendrick T. A qualitative study of patient views on discontinuing long-term selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Fam Pract. 2007;24(6):570-575.
  72. Henderson C, Robinson E, Evans-Lacko S, et al. Public knowledge, attitudes, social distance and reported contact regarding people with mental illness 2009-2015. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016;134:23-33.
  73. Burton C, Anderson N, Wilde K, Simpson CR. Factors associated with duration of new antidepressant treatment: Analysis of a large primary care database. Br J Gen Pract. 2012;62(595):e104-e112.
  74. Johnson CF, Dougall NJ, Williams B, MacGillivray SA, Buchanan AI, Hassett RD. Patient factors associated with SSRI dose for depression treatment in general practice: A primary care cross sectional study. BMC Fam Pract. 2014;15(1):210-210.
  75. Bowers HM, Williams SJ, Geraghty AWA, et al. Helping people discontinue long-term antidepressants: Views of health professionals in UK primary care. BMJ open. 2019;9(7):e027837-e027837.
  76. Parish PA. The prescribing of psychotropic drugs in general practice. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1971;21(92):1-77.
  77. Middleton N, Gunnell D, Whitley E, Dorling D, Frankel S. Secular trends in antidepressant prescribing in the UK, 1975–1998. Journal of public health (Oxford, England). 2001;23(4):262-267.
  78. Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Salanti G, et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 21 antidepressant drugs for the acute treatment of adults with major depressive disorder: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018;391(10128):1357-1366.
  79. Hirschfeld RMA. Efficacy of SSRIs and newer antidepressants in severe depression : Comparison with TCAs. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60(5):326-335.
  80. Pilgrim D., Bentall R. The medicalisation of misery: A critical realist analysis of the concept of depression. Journal of Mental Health. 1999;8(3):261-274.
  81. Lee KC, Feldman MD, Finley PR. Beyond depression: Evaluation of newer indications and off-label uses for SSRIs. Formulary. 2002;37(6):312.
  82. Lockhart P, Guthrie B. Trends in primary care antidepressant prescribing 1995-2007: A longitudinal population database analysis. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61(590):e565-e572.
  83. Sinclair JE, Aucott LS, Lawton K, Reid IC, Cameron IM. The monitoring of longer term prescriptions of antidepressants: Observational study in a primary care setting. Fam Pract. 2014;31(4):419-426.
  84. Guy A, Brown M, Lewis S, Horowitz M. The ‘patient voice’: Patients who experience antidepressant withdrawal symptoms are often dismissed, or misdiagnosed with relapse, or a new medical condition. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. 2020;10:2045125320967183-2045125320967183.
  85. ISD Scotland. Medicines used in mental health: Years 2009/10 - 2018/19. Public Health Scotland. Published 2019. Updated 2022.
  86. Svensson SA, Hedenrud TM, Wallerstedt SM. Attitudes and behaviour towards psychotropic drug prescribing in swedish primary care: A questionnaire study. BMC Fam Pract. 2019;20(1):4-4.
  87. Moore M, Byng R, Stuart B, Harris T, Kendrick T. ‘Watchful waiting’ or ‘active monitoring’ in depression management in primary care: Exploring the recalled content of general practitioner consultations. J Affect Disord. 2012;145(1):120-125.
  88. Buist E, McLelland R, Rushworth GF, et al. An evaluation of mental health clinical pharmacist independent prescribers within general practice in remote and rural scotland. Int J Clin Pharm. 2019;41(5):1138-1142.
  89. Alonso‐Pedrero L, Bes‐Rastrollo M, Marti A. Effects of antidepressant and antipsychotic use on weight gain: A systematic review. Obesity reviews. 2019;20(12):1680-1690.
  90. Arterburn D, Sofer T, Boudreau DM, et al. Long-term weight change after initiating second-generation antidepressants. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2016;5(4):48.
  91. Cooney G.M., Dwan K., Greig C.A., et al. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013;2013(9): 004366.
  92. Coventry PA, Brown JE, Pervin J, et al. Nature-based outdoor activities for mental and physical health: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SSM - population health. 2021;16:100934-100934.
  93. Davies J, Read J. A systematic review into the incidence, severity and duration of antidepressant withdrawal effects: Are guidelines evidence-based? Addict Behav. 2019;97:111-121.
  94. Elliott RA, Camacho E, Campbell F, et al. Prevalence and Economic Burden of Medication Errors in the NHS in England: Rapid evidence synthesis and economic analysis of the prevalence and burden of medication error in the UK. Policy Research Unit in Economic Evaluation of Health & Care Interventions (EEPRU). 2018. Accessed 7th April 2022.
  95. Fava M. Weight gain and antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61 Suppl 11:37.
  96. Finnerup NB, M.D., Attal N, Prof, Haroutounian S, PhD., et al. Pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet neurology. 2015;14(2):162-173.
  97. Framer A. What I have learnt from helping thousands of people taper off antidepressants and other psychotropic medications. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2021;11:2045125321991274-2045125321991274.
  98. Jauhar S, Hayes J. The war on antidepressants: What we can, and can't conclude, from the systematic review of antidepressant withdrawal effects by davies and read. Addict Behav. 2019;97:122-125.
  99. Johnson CF, Liddell K, Guerri C, Findlay P, Thom A. Medicines reconciliation at the community mental health team-general practice interface: Quality improvement study. BJPsych Bulletin. 2019;44(1):12-18.
  100. Kelsey JE. Dose-response relationship with venlafaxine. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996;16(3 SUPPL. 3):21S-28S.
  101. Maund E, Dewar-Haggart R, Williams S, et al. Barriers and facilitators to discontinuing antidepressant use: A systematic review and thematic synthesis. J Affect Disord. 2019;245:38-62.
  102. McGrath M, Duncan F, Dotsikas K, et al. Effectiveness of community interventions for protecting and promoting the mental health of working-age adults experiencing financial uncertainty: A systematic review. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2021;75(7):665-673.
  103. Mekonnen AB, McLachlan AJ, Brien JE. Effectiveness of pharmacist-led medication reconciliation programmes on clinical outcomes at hospital transitions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016;6(2):e010003-e010003.
  104. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 2006. Dementia: Supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care: NICE Clinical guideline CG42. Accessed 1 April 2022.
  105. Drug induced QT prolongation. NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Medicines Information Service.. 2018(8):1-3. Accessed 7 April 2022.
  106. Papakostas GI. Limitations of contemporary antidepressants: Tolerability. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 10:11.
  107. Patterson SM, Hughes C, Kerse N, Cardwell CR, Bradley MC. Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy for older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(5):CD008165. doi(5):CD008165.
  108. Stein MB, Pollack MH, Bystritsky A, Kelsey JE, Mangano RM. Efficacy of low and higher dose extended-release venlafaxine in generalized social anxiety disorder: A 6-month randomized controlled trial. Psychopharmacology. 2005;177(3):280-288.
  109. Szegedi A, Jansen WT, Van Willigenburg AP,P. Van Der Meulen E, Stassen HH, Thase ME. Early improvement in the first 2 weeks as a predictor of treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder : A meta-analysis including 6562 patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70(3):344-353.
  110. Wang M, Zeraatkar D, Obeda M, et al. Drug–drug interactions with warfarin: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021;87(11):4051-4100.
Expand this content